Vertical position- a method for suggesting the third dimension of depth in a 2D work by placing an object above another in the composition
Amplified perspective- A dynamic and dramatic illusionistic effect created when an object is pointed directly at the viewer
Isometric projection- a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings
Transparency- the quality of being able to see through one or more layers in an artwork
1 point- a drawing method that shows how things appear to get smaller as they get further away, converging towards a single ‘vanishing point’ on the horizon line.
2 point- linear perspective in which parallel lines along the width and depth of an object are represented as meeting at two separate points on the horizon that are 90 degrees apart as measured from the common intersection of the lines of projection
3 point perspective- which parallel lines along the width of an object meet at two separate points on the horizon and vertical lines on the object meet at a point on the perpendicular bisector of the horizon line
Atmospheric- a technique of rendering depth or distance in a painting by modifying the tone or hue and distinctness of objects perceived as receding from the picture plane
Achromatic- a color that lacks hues such as white, grey and black
Monochromatic- color scheme based on only one, single color tint
Complementary- 2 colors that are on opposite sides of the color wheel
Analogous- a group of related colors that are near each other on the color wheel
Triad- three colors evenly spaced on the color wheel.
Tetrad- All four colors are distributed evenly around the color wheel
Warm, Cool- Warm colors — such as red, yellow, and orange; evoke warmth because they remind us of things like the sun or fire. Cool colors — such as blue, green, and purple (violet); evoke a cool feeling because they remind us of things like water or grass.
Achromatic-Chromatic Mix- use of achromatic and chromatic colors together often to emphasize something
Value Keys- part of value scale/tonal scale. Paintings with predominantly lighter values are said to be “high key” and Paintings with predominantly darker values are said to be “low key”.
Saturation Keys- scale or key of the saturation or intensity of a color
Local color- the natural color of an object unmodified by adding unrealistic light and shadow or any other distortion
Color psychology- the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior
Color symbolism- use of color as a symbol in various cultures
Emphasis- area or object within the artwork that draws attention and becomes a focal point
Contrast- refers to the arrangement of opposite elements in an artwork to create visual interest or create emphasis
Isolation- when something is separated from other objects around it, draws eyes toward the separation.
Placement- Placement is placing objects that you want to appear closer to your eye lower on the surface of your drawing (and placing objects that you want to appear further away, higher on the surface of your drawing) thus drawing the eye to a certain area and creating emphasis over it.
Emphasize whole over parts- emphasis or importance is all over the work rather than in one particular area, no focal point
Focus by eye direction- the eye is drawn to one direction so focus is placed on that particular area
Balance- a sense of the distribution of perceived visual weights that offset one another
Horizontal vs Vertical- a line that runs across the paper lengthwise, like a horizon, can represent the viewer’s eye or delineate where the sky meets the ground. Perpendicular to the horizon, running up and down.
Symmetrical balance- a balance achieved by objects arranged evenly on either side of the center.
Asymmetrical balance-design that looks balanced despite a lack of symmetry
Radial- visual material arranged around a central point, taking a roughly circular form
Crystallographic- “mosaic” balance, creating a grid pattern and achieving balance by repeating elements of equal weight all over your design
Scale- the size of an object in relation to another
Proportion- the relative size of parts of a whole
Contrast- refers to the arrangement of opposite elements in an artwork to create visual interest
Human scale reference- when the human scale is used as a reference to estimate or determine the size of an object
Internal references- when an object with a standard, well-known size is used to make reference to the size of another object
Ideal: Golden Mean- based on the golden ratio, a mathematical ratio. Commonly found in nature, when used in design it creates a natural-looking composition that is aesthetically pleasing to the eye. 1.618, same as the Fibonacci Sequence.
Unity- the wholeness and completeness to an image, gives the artwork a sense of cohesion or “togetherness”.
Gestalt- the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, describes the ability to recognize patterns and make assumptions from them. Based on proximity, similarity, continuity, closure and connectedness.
Totality- the whole of something, the total of an artwork
Proximity- closeness, how far objects or things are away from others
Repetition- repeating aspect, helps create of movement within an artwork
Continuation- the human eye follows lines, curves or sequences to find the relationship between design elements
Grid-a network of uniformly spaced horizontal and perpendicular lines
Radial Balance-visual balance based on a circle with its design extending from center