Optimizing X-Ray Imaging Using Plant Mediated Gold Nanoparticles as Contrast Agent: A Review
International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VIII, Issue VIII, August 2021 | ISSN 2321–2705
Gbadebo A. Isola, Margaret K. Akinloye, Yekinni K. Sanusi, Paul S. Ayanlola*, Gabriel A. Alamu
Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Abstract: X-ray imaging has been a clinical practice for more than half a century, and the hydrophilic iodinated-based molecules are universally and continuously employed as contrast agents. However, a renewed interest in nanoparticles-based contrast agents has emerged with the promise of detailed imaging, and potential for therapeutic applications. Preclinical and clinical applications of nanoparticles are identified for a broad spectrum of imaging applications, with commentaries on the future promise of these materials. However, these nanomaterials contrast agents are not without issues, as the method of synthesizing the nanomaterials limits their applications as clinical contrast agents. The physical and chemical methods of synthesizing nanoparticles have been proven successful but not biocompatible due to the use of toxic chemicals, but, with the biocompatibility of biological substances such as microorganisms and plants, nanoparticles can be synthesized for applications in x-ray imaging.
Key words: Contrast agents, Gold nanoparticles, Optimizing, Plant, X-ray Imaging
The use of ionizing radiation and the utilization of contrast agents in medical imaging has allowed for a more effective and timely diagnosis and treatment of patients. However, due to some limitations of the clinically approved iodinated contrast agents, nanoparticles, most especially, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been studied and are reported to be candid replacements for clinical use as x-ray contrast agents. The nanoparticles promise improved abilities for in-vivo applications and potentially enhanced targeting efficiencies through longer engineered circulation times, designed clearance pathways and binding capacities . Hence, this paper takes a concise review on the concept of x-ray imaging and the currently employed contrast agents, contribution of nanotechnology to medicine, different methods of synthesizing AuNPs and also call for the investigation and utilization of plants in synthesizing AuNPs for the purpose of x-ray imaging.