It really do be like that sometimes
It really do be like that sometimes
there are so many things i want to say to you. but i am scared to say them, i am scared that i can’t convey all that is so wildly perfect about you, that if i were to try to tell you it would come out all wrong. and i hate that no one else sees what i see about you.
this is messy, and difficult, and i don’t think i’m making any sense, but i finally understand what it means to love someone. and i think that maybe i’ve found my home in you.
seventeen will be back
No one at all:
Me: i WaNt tO cArVe NeWsiES pUmKinS
Okay, I have never carved a pumpkin at all in my life. I thought it would be a cool idea to finally do it before it’s Spoopy Day in like half an hour.
This was fun. And rage inducing. I think it turned out pretty good if I do say so myself, especially for a first try. I didn’t have the right tools and stuff so I alternated between using a stabby knife and a butter knife.
All in all, an enjoyable experience.
Highlighted by Chernobyl. Part 2.
Attention! Walla text.
I was most interested in the third part of the book, specifically an article written by N. N. Kudryakov (Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in St. Petersburg), entitled “ The Technology of the disaster. How the Chernobyl reactor was built and why it exploded.” It also contains an interesting excerpt from the recording of the Politburo meeting on July 3, 1986. Write whether I need to translate it completely, maybe someone has already done it (@littlesilkworm, maybe)?
So, after some of the author’s personal views on the political, social and professional causes and consequences of the accident, a brief history of the development of nuclear physics is given (main events, such as the discovery of the proton and neutron, the discovery of radioactivity and nuclear fission, and so on).
And finally, RBMK-1000. How it works, and what processes take place in the reactor.
Brief description of the RBMK-1000 reactor design.
Graphite is the main structural element of the reactor core. Overall dimensions of graphite pile – 14 x 14 m (in length and width) and 8 meters in height. The pile is formed by vertical columns in the amount of 2488 pieces, each consisting of prismatic blocks installed on top of each other with dimensions of 25 x 25 cm and 60 cm in height. This is lattice pitch of the pile. These blocks have lengthwise through holes with diameters of 114 mm. When installing graphite blocks on top of each other, a vertical cylindrical channel or path is formed inside. A pipe made of zirconium alloy is inserted into this vertical channel – it is called a technological channel.
A fuel assembly with nuclear fuel is installed in the pipe of the technological channel from above. It consists of fuel elements - fuel rods, which are a thin-walled tubes filled with uranium dioxide in the form of cylindrical tablets. In the space between the fuel rods, flows boiling water which is a core coolant. Not all column-cells of the core contain technological channels with nuclear fuel. Some of the cells are designed to accommodate control elements - control rods and protection system of the reactor (CPS) made of steel and boron, a strong neutron absorber (there is no graphite in these rods!) For the RBMK reactors of the 3rd and 4th Units of the Chernobyl NPP, the project provided for 1661 technological channels and 211 CPS channels.
In order for the reactor to be stable, the necessary (optimal) value of the graphite lattice pitch, according to the calculations given in the book, when the fission factor of the reactor (i.e. reactivity) is equal to one and makes it possible for a stable nuclear reaction to proceed, is 21.5 cm. The lattice pitch at which the graphs intersect corresponds to the amount of graphite at which water stops to be an additional reaction moderator, and its disappearance does not affect the criticality of the reactor operation.
Since in the RBMK reactor of the 4th Unit of the ChNPP the value of the graphite lattice pitch was 25 cm, meaning that, with such a pitch, any arbitrarily small increase in steam quality (the state of the reactor without water) leads to an increase in the fission factor, then to an increase in the neutron flux and then to an increase in thermal power; an increase in thermal power additionally increases steam quality, steam quality increases the fission factor, and so on. A positive feedback mechanism (vicious circle, doesn’t it sounds familiar?!) is triggered, and the power will increase until this growth is stopped by the regulation system or emergency protection.
If the absorbing safety rod is pulled upward from the core, then the so-called displacer is pulled in its place from below - a kind of dimensional model of the absorbing rod, which has an aluminum shell and graphite filling. When the absorbing rod begins to move downward, from the extreme upper position, the displacer, going down, in the upper part of the core makes room for the absorbing rod, and in the lower part it takes the place of the water column. Replacement of water in the lower part of the core with graphite, i.e. neutron absorber to the moderator, is improving the neutron- multiplying properties of the reactor, which causing a power surge.
This phenomenon is called the end effect. A similar surge in power has been repeatedly observed at various RBMK power Units. It caused particularly severe consequences at the Leningrad NPP on November 30, 1975.
The end effect at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which appeared in the first seconds of the emergency protection rods running, and the resulting power surge in the lower part of the reactor caused steam to fill the technological channels along the entire height of the core, an increase in the fission factor, and a volumetric increase in power, which the control rods could no longer cope with.
The accident at the LNPP showed that at this lattice pitch, water plays the role of a neutron absorber, and since the reactivity and power surges are caused by fluctuations in the amount of this mobile absorber, it is possible to neutralize or at least reduce this effect by introducing a constantly present absorber into the core. As such, it was decided to use part of the control rods. The regulations stated: there must be at least 15 rods in the core. The increase in the amount of iron and boron in the core was compensated by an increase in the enrichment of nuclear fuel.
But! Nowhere, not in any document, they did not explain what caused such a statement in the regulations, and nowhere did they explain that when the rods are fully removed, the steam effect manifests itself in all its glory and the reactor becomes capable of power excursion and explosion.
On the night of November 30, 1975, the reactor at the Leningrad NPP did not explode only because the senior reactor control engineer Mikhail Pavlovich Karrask, before pressing the AZ-5 button, alternately introduced 12 automatic control rods into the core. Just think about it: he did it by acting intuitively and, using the skills of managing industrial reactors, he reduced the thermal power of the reactor from 900 MW to 100-150 MW. This amount of introduced iron was enough to prevent the reactor from exploding, but it turned out to be insufficient to completely suppress the end effect. Then he pressed AZ-5, as a result of that one of the channels had been destroyed.
On the night of April 26, 1986, Leonid Fedorovich Toptunov, the chief engineer of the 4th Unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, pressed the AZ-5 button, not having 15 or even 12 rods in the active zone.
In other words, no one taught the stuff at the Chernobyl NPP how to deal with this non-regulatory negative state of the reactor, neither Toptunov, nor director Viktor Petrovich Bryukhanov knew nothing about it, which had been reported this at a meeting of the Politburo on July 3, 1986.
anyway i watched bly manor, but it wasn’t for me. i found it really slow at times, then too much happening, too many plot holes, and generally confusing.
that said hannah and owen deserved far better and besides like 2 people on my dash nobody else is talking about them. :(
6th day: free day
My first non-really-aesthetical collage about 14th Prince!
I hope I can do more of this in my free time <3
im so sorry.
Me, knowing it’s twow:
Also me: TEH-WOW
this also applies to asoiaf (AH-SO-AY-EFF)
Tried making some backgrounds
Ben Hardy’s appearance in 6 Underground as Four: 11/x (not in order)
I made another thing, plz look at it :D
oh to be able to tell lee seokmin he’s pretty 💔
For the @shortnfantastic redraw challenge. I am very, very out of practice drawing, but I’ve been trying to get back into it and was thinking of doing the challenge for practice, because I love this AU so much. Then Short said the actual world’s sweetest things about my WIP, so after flailing for a full day about that, obviously I had no choice but to draw them fanart.
Short, I love your art style and your comics are the most adorable, heartwarming things I have ever seen. Every time you post a new one it makes my entire week brighter! Your Little Mindscape universe is hands down my single favorite piece of fan content in this entire fandom. Thank you for making something so soft and beautiful, and sharing it with the world.
My attempt at an art style bend ✨ actually it’s more of an art style change than a bend but anyways,
Inktober Day 29: Shoes
hehe I didn’t forget about the other prompts I swear