theory of criminal behaviour
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND THEORIES
1. Legal Criminal Behaviour or action that is prohibited by the state and punishable under the Law.
2. Moral Criminal Behavior refers to an action that violates the norms of religion and morality and is believed to be punishable by a supreme spiritual being.
3. Social Criminal Behaviour refers to an action that violates the norms of custom and tradition and are punishable by the community.
4. Psychological Criminal Behaviour that refers to an action that may be rewarding to that actor but inflict pain or loss-on-other it is criminal behaviour that is anti-social behaviour.
WHAT IS CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR?
Any behaviour that is Criminal Intention.
Mens rea- Guilty Mind/Criminal Intention [that is publicly not acceptable].
CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR THEORIES
‘Causes of Crime’ there is no one cause of crime.
Crime is a highly complex phenomenon that changes across cultures and across time.
Activities that are legal in one country (alcohol consumption in the UK) are sometimes illegal in others
(e.g.- strict Muslim country).
As culture change over time, behaviour that once was not criminal may become criminalized (and decriminalized again e.g.-alcohol prohibition in the USA).
(1) Rational Choice theory- According to this theory crime is a passion of someone and also the individuals not only decide to commit crime, but decide when and where to commit a crime.
In any course of action, individuals weigh up the likely benefits and disadvantages of each action.
(2) Social Learning Theory- Social learning theory considers the formation of one’s identity to be a learned response to social stimuli. It emphasizes the societal context of socialization rather than the individual mind.
(3) Social Control Theory- The social control theory sees crime as a result of social institutions losing control over individuals. Weak an institution such as certain type of families, the breakdown of local communities and breakdown of trust in the Government and police are linked to higher crime rates.
According to Travis Hirschi there are four social bonds that bind us together- Attachment,Commitment, Involvement and Beliefs.
(4) Tag Theory- Labeling or Tag theory proposes that applying a label, whether that means informally designating a “Bad Kid” or a “Trouble Maker” or more formal arrest or incarceration record, has a longterm effect on a given person.
Policy inspired by the labelling theory was popular in the 1970s but they were perceived as ineffective and fail out of use, replace by “tough on crime” rational choice approaches.
According to this society treat person as a criminal.
(5) Social Disorganization Theory- The theory of social disorganization states a person’s physical and social environment are primarily responsible for the behavioural choices that a person makes.
The theory is not been used to explain organized crime, corporate crime or deviant behaviour that takes place outside neighbourhood settings.
(6) Genetics and Biological Theories- Biological explanation of crime assume that some people are ‘Born criminal’, who are physiological distinct from non-criminals. Biological theories of crime asserted a linkage between certain biological condition and an increasing tendency to engage in criminal behaviour.
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