Irene Morgan Kirkaldy, born on April 9, 1917, is known for being arrested in July 1944 after she refused to give up her bus seat to a White passenger in Virginia. Kirkaldy was convicted in a County Circuit Court, but appealed the decision to the Virginia Supreme Court and later to the Supreme Court. With the help of lawyers from the NAACP, including Thurgood Marshall, the Supreme Court ruled in her favor on June 3, 1946. Kirkaldy’s case was a pioneer in civil rights law. She would later receive the Presidential Citizens Medal from President Bill Clinton in 2001.
this photo of john wilkes booth always weirds me out cause he doesn’t have that dumb mustache on his face and it just looks…so fucking odd
that’s him on the left, next to him is his brother edwin and then i think it’s their older brother junius jr….?
but yeah it’s weird cause i always think of him like this
look at this fucking punk…punch him in the face if i could
#my ramblings #this has been a random post about john wilkes booth #i've been reading more about the plot and what not and it's very fascinating #but at the same time #fuck this dude #history #john wilkes booth
“Print technology created the public, electronic media created the mass.” Although written over half a century ago, Marshall McLuhan’s “The Medium is The Massage” has remained relevant for it’s analysis of mass media and the widespread dissemination of ideas. At the time of writing, McLuhan’s idea of electronic media was limited to radio and television, but these channels of public access following print media acted as foundational building blocks for mass-communication. McLuhan’s juxtaposition between print technology and electronic media brings physicality and audience into question, paralleling discourse surrounding the internet, as well the use of the internet as a mass medium and the translation of its content into physical space. The online world appears ephemeral and everchanging, however, the social effects and material culminations are permanent. This dichotomy begs the question, how can we excavate, document, and archive the internet?
Prior to electronic media, communication relied upon the public having access through artifacts or word of mouth. In antiquity, these forms of communication were very limiting, requiring those who received the information to be physically present, either face to face with someone speaking or in close proximity to an object, such as a painting or sculpture. Even as written history developed, literacy was fairly uncommon, and only gained significant popularity through the production of paper, resulting in the reproduction of texts to be disseminated widely.
Although print technology laid the ground work for the rapid spread of information, electronic media amplified this connection astronomically. Advancements such as radio and television allowed news of events to be documented, disseminated, and witnessed in real time. With the development of electronic media, specifically the internet, historical documentation has strayed farther and farther away from the bound book format, allowing for detailed accounts that engage more than one of the human senses at a time. Social networking platforms not only create history, but also amplify historical moments, documenting events from multiple perspectives at one time, no longer completely limited by a the biases of broadcasting stations or newspaper publications. Rather than having the most artistic craftsmen or literate scribes detail important historical events, the collective internet is typically able to provide accounts from all angles. However, with the lack of veneration for a single-sided story and the internet’s incapability to agree, this form of documentation has the potential to cause conflict rather than productive discourse.
It could be argued that history is often written from the winner’s perspective, but who declares the winner when battles are waged behind a screen? Although the internet appears trivial and intangible, filled with entertainment and the ability to connect with others, it’s widespread accessibility has given rise to social movements. Social media allows users the ability to share information instantaneously, and because of this, online calls-to action can become physical gatherings; groups of people that share similar beliefs, having no direct relation other than their approximate location and access to wifi, are able to make history in real life, leaving behind digital breadcrumbs of how the event came to be. Whether peaceful or violent, the move from Twitter to the streets creates such a dramatic impact that information of the event is spread through other forms of media, such as television and news articles. The issue here is how the movement is documented, how that documentation is spread, and how that documentation will be received by future historians.
The biases of news sources can paint an entirely different picture than the Snapchats of protestors, and because of the drastic difference in accounts, the amount of eyes on particular story, and how it’s received by the public, it feels next to impossible to historically archive. Because everyone with a cellphone has the ability to document and disseminate events in real time, the retroactive archival work has to take technology into account, rather than what was said or how it was represented by a single source. This form of history-writing looks entirely different from the pre-internet world; rather than relying on sources that had the ability to publicly broadcast, such as radio or television networks, the voices of the people are heard as well. With social media, historians can analyze the first person accounts that were made public almost immediately after an event, rather than waiting for something to be written or a news source to pick up the story.
This brings us back to physicality; the artifacts of this moment are not only the devices we hold, but also what’s contained within them. Our collectively held reliance in electronic media comes with the assumption that everything recorded or posted is permanently saved, so there is less need to consolidate events down to a single retelling that you would typically find in a written account. However, historians of our age need to focus on the preservation of data, down to the most minute details, as our devices update and become discarded. Excavating a dead iPhone means nothing without the data inside of it; it’s up to digital archivists to ensure that electronic media can outlast us, in the same way that stone carvings have remained intact for thousands of years. On the web, everyone can make history, but how we choose to keep record is crucial, as the internet changes as fast as time itself.
The unfinished brown quartzite head of Queen Nefertiti was part of a composite statue. Each element was sculpted separately to be later assembled into one statue. As it remained unfinished, the head retained the guiding lines of the sculptor: the eyebrows were marked with brown and the eyes with black. Like the rest of Akhenaten’s family, the head portrayed the queen according to the Amarna style of art.
Nefertiti’s oval face reflected the sensibility and grace of a woman of great spirit. The eyebrows were elongated naturally towards the temples, projecting supercilious arches and cheekbones. The eyes were half-dimmed by the slightly downcast eyelids. The shape of her mouth hinted a mysterious quality. All of these features, which were rendered with harmonious proportions, created a beautiful portrait of the queen.
New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, Amarna Period, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353-1336 BC.
It was found near the famous complex of the sculptor Thutmose, in whose workshop was found the famous bust of Nefertiti.
Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. JE 59286
Its context is the encounter of the burning bush (Exodus 3:14): Moses asks what he is to say to the Israelites when they ask what God [‘Elohiym] has sent him to them, and YHWH replies, “I am who I am”, adding, “Say this to the people of Israel, ’I am has sent me to you.’”
1616 - Roman Inquisition delivers injunction to Galileo demanding he abandon his belief in heliocentrism which states the earth and planets revolve around the sun
1910 - Gandhi supports the African People’s Organization’s resolution to declare the Prince of Wales’ day of arrival in South Africa a day of mourning, in protest against the South Africa Acts disenfranchisement of Indians, Coloreds and Africans
1917 - Russian February Revolution: Tsar Nicolas II orders army to quell civil unrest in Petrograd - army mutinies
1935 - RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) 1st demonstrated
1991 - Coalition planes bomb Iraqi forces retreating from Kuwait during Gulf War, killing hundreds and creating the so called “Highway of Death” (pictured)
1993 - “World Trade Center Bombing of 1993″ : truck bomb explodes in parking garage of NYC World Trade Center, killing 6 and injuring over 1000 in what was the deadliest act of terrorism perpetuated on US soil at that time
World Map of Nations (not to be confused with sovereign states, eg. when scotland and england joined peacefully, both Scotland and England remained nations while both becoming part of the sovereign state, U.K.) https://ift.tt/3pV9KLZ