#roman art Tumblr posts

  • Temple of Domitian (Temple of the Flavian Sebastoi)

    Ephesus, Turkey

    1st century CE

    The south part of Ephesus contains a temple dedicated to the cult of emperor Domitian. The temple defines the south side of the so-called ‘Domitian Square’ and is situated south of the Public Agora, the city’s political and administrative center. The Domitian Way courses along its east side, flanked by commercial buildings.

    The sanctuary was built on a terrace of an innovative construction, featuring large vaulted structures, and arranged on a large flat area measuring 50 x 100 m., surrounded by stoae; it included a temple and an altar. The temple rested on a tall crepidoma with six steps and it was orientated to the East, towards the city’s Public Agora. It is estimated that it measured 24 x 34 m. This was a pseudoperipteral temple with 8 columns at its narrow sides and 13 columns on its long sides. It featured a prostylepronaos with 4 columns and a cella. In terms of architectural design it is similar to the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ankara, although the temple at Ephesus was much smaller in scale. It is worth noting that the type of the pseudoperipteral temple, developed in accordance to the principles and works of the famous Hellenistic architect Hermogenes, was a popular temple design during the Imperial Period in Greece and Asia Minor; the Temple of Domitian at Ephesus represents a characteristic example of this trend.

    The altar stood at the east section of the sanctuary, on the same axis as the temple. This Pi-shaped structure rested on a tall bathron. The bathron supported a courtyard at the centre of which stood the offering table/altar, which was surrounded by a colonnade. One accessed the altar’s courtyard through a stairway on the side that opened to the temple. Reliefs depicting sacrificial scenes and representations of weapons taken from vanquished enemies decorated the external surfaces of the bathron. In terms of its architectural form the altar was modeled after the splendid Altar at Pergamum.

    With the victory of Christianity, it was stripped down to its foundations and has almost completely disappeared today.

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  • Venus Pompeiana, fresco from Pompeii

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  • It’s the Day of Aphrodite / Venus’ Day / Frigg’s Day (Friday)

    This Campanian black-slip bowl has a relief-moulded decoration of Mars and Venus at the bottom.

    250-150 BCE, today in the British Museum

    #Day of Aphrodite #Aphrodite#Aphrodite art#Venus Deity #Mars and Venus #Mars Deity#Ares art#Roman art#pottery #Aphrodite loves you
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  • Arcadian street & Middle Harbor gate

    Ephesus, Turkey

    2nd century BCE (street) &  2nd century CE (middle harbor gate)

    The city plan of Roman Ephesus is dominated by Arcadian Street. It is a monumental road artery 530 m long and 11.5 m wide framed by porticoes. The street connects the harbour with the Theatre, starting from the Middle Gate of the Harbour and ending in the Theatre square.

    Arcadian Street was 530 m long and 11.5 m wide. The pavement was made of marble slabs. There were porticoes all along the way. They were 5 to 5.7 m deep, while the floors were partly decorated with mosaics depicting simple geometrical shapes. Two drainage pipes ensured the outflow of rainwater. The shape of the road, as revealed today, dates from the late imperial years, when it was completely renovated during the reign of Emperor Arcadius (395-408 CE).

     In the early 2nd century, within the general framework of reconstruction in the city, when the Middle Gate of the Harbour was constructed, and the street was paved with marble slabs and the porticoes were constructed. The columns in the porticoes stood on Attic-Ionic bases, which were connate with the pedestals. The shafts of the columns were not fluted and the capitals were in the Composite order, combining elements of both the Corinthian and the Ionic order. Construction details of the capitals reveal that the columns of the porticoes supported a marble entablature. The intercolumnar spaces are estimated at 2.65 m.

    also on this street: the Tetrakionion

    A particularly important intervention took place in the first half of the 6th century, during the reign of Emperor Justinian: a four-column monument was erected almost in the middle of Arcadian Street. A smaller road coming from the north, probably constructed in the same period, ends there. This monument proves that the Arcadiane maintained its importance during the early Byzantine years. The columns stood on three-level bases and high circular pedestals with rich architectural decorations. Each pedestal had eight semi-circular niches surrounded by Corinthian colonnettes that support an arched crown. The arches were decorated with relief floral motifs and crosses. The pedestals also bore inscriptions honouring Frontinus, a proconsul probably responsible for the construction of the monument. The column capitals were in the Composite order, while the bases were in the Ionic-Attic style. Their total height was 10 m. It is possible that the columns supported either statues of the emperor and his family or statues of the four Evangelists.

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  • Punishment of Ixion: in the center is Mercury holding the caduceus. On the right is Juno on her throne, and behind her Iris stands and gestures. On the left is Vulcanus (blond figure) manning the wheel, with Ixion already tied to the wheel. Nephele sits at Mercury’s feet. Roman fresco from the eastern wall of the triclinium in the Casa dei Vettii , Pompeii

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  • Theatre mask, fresco from Pompeii

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  • Artistic reconstruction of the Temple of Venus in Pompeii

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  • Satyr, Naples Archeological Museum

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  • It’s the Day of Zeus / Jupiter’s Day / Thorsday!

    Head of Zeus by an unknown artist from the Flavian period (69-96 CE). Found in Ephesus, now in the Ephesus Archaeological Museum

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  • Parthian monument

    Epehsus, Turkey

    2nd century CE

    The Parthian monument was a monumental altar in the town of Ephesus on the third quarter of the 2nd century CE. I was built in honour of Caesar Lucius Verus, and named “Parthian” for the Parthian wars depicted on one of its friezes. Apart from this frieze the monument also shows the adoption of L. Verus, his “apotheosis” personifications of towns of the Roman Empire and the meeting of the gods.

    The building seems to have been destroyed systematically during the Early Christian period and the relief slabs of the friezes were reused for various purposes. Today most of the reliefs are exhibited in the Ephesosmuseum in Vienna. 

    The location of the Parthian monument, which was erected by the town of Ephesus in honour of the triumphant victor against the Parthians Caesar Lucius Verus, has concerned the scholars greatly;

    The architectural form of the Parthian monument is still very hypothetical. Only the slabs of two iconographical zones survive. One contains narrative scenes and the other is decorated with bucrania and garlands. Archaeometric studies showed that the monument’s reliefs were carved on dolomitic marble, possibly from Thasos. Some indications relating to the dimensions of the entire building can be discerned by a reconstruction of the relief friezes. Thus, according to the proposal by W. Oberleitner, the length of the frieze with the narrative themes reached 70 m. Of these, around 45 m., i.e. 2/3 of the slabs survive in good condition and are exhibited. Certain slabs have been identified as corners and have been placed at the beginning or the end of the monument’s walls. Judging by these, the largest part of the relief decoration covered the building’s exterior. The slabs have a height of approx. 2 m. and are defined at their top end by a tripartite – sometimes quadripartite– horizontal cornice. A total of 24 slabs survive from the decorative frieze with the bucrania and the garlands.

    The most common reconstruction of the monument is that of an altar with an U-shapedground plan which stands on a tall socle. The socle basically supports a spacious courtyard at the center of which the main altar was placed, surrounded by a colonnade. Access to the altar’s courtyard was allowed via a monumental staircase on the open side. The reliefs decorated the high socle on two levels.

    compare with other monumental altars: Syracuse , Magnesia, Pergamon

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    Onyx Cameo. 1st century BC. MFA Boston

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  • Satyr mask from Musei Capitolini, Rome

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  • Serapeion (Temple of Serapis) 

    Ephesus, Turkey

    2nd century CE

    24 m high

    The Serapeion of Ephesus lies close to the Tetragonos Agora , on the South Street, on a flat space measuring 100 × 75 m which was created after the demolition of residences in that area dating to the Late Hellenistic period. The sacred complex included two-storey Corinthian stoas and an octastyle prostyle temple on the south side. It was built during the 2nd cent. AD to house the worship of Serapis, connected with healing of diseases through a regimen of ritual purifications conducted inside the temple.

    A large terrace measuring approximately 100 x 75 m was created in the early 2nd cent. CE on an outcropping of Mt Bulbuldag over the ruins of houses dating to the Late Hellenistic Period, to accommodate the temple’s precinct. The retaining wall, symmetrically arranged with an N-S axis, was created by extracting the natural rock and using it to form various access levels. The main entrance of the complex lay on the north narrow side, where an impressive staircase led up from the West Street, while another stairway, from the SW corner of the Tetragonos Agora, led to the temple

    At the centre of the complex’s south side stood the octastyle prostyle temple (measuring 29.20 x 36.70 m), which rested on a high podium. Access was possible only through a staircase on the main façade. Eight monolithic Corinthian columns approx. 15 m. tall supported a richly decorated entablature and formed a deep porch. Pilasters were formed in regular intervals on the wall of the portico. Entrance to the cella was made through a large door opening (5 m in width and approx. 6 m in height).

    The cella was 30 m deep and was covered by an arch. Six small niches are set into each of the longitudinal walls, while there was also a central niche in the middle of the south wall, where the cult statue was installed flanked by two smaller niches. Vertical slits in all niches served to let in water, which subsequently flowed into a peripheral channel in the cella floor. Two side aisles were formed in the east and west side of the cella, on the walls of which more niches exist, apparently not connected to a water supply. On the south side of the cella two narrow stairways were uncovered, which is uncertain whether they were used for egress from the temple or if they are related to the worship, leading to an attic, which would have been situated above the cella. The walls of the temple were made of local limestone, while for the construction of the barrel vault large conglomerate stones were employed.

    The complex was defined by Corinthian two-storeyed colonnades approx. 6 m in depth and 15 m in height. The columns of the stoas rest on Attic-Ionic bases integrated with the pedestals. The shafts of the columns were unfluted, monolithic and supported an Ionic entablature with a three-fasciae architrave, frieze and horizontal cornice. On the second floor, the entablature was supported by pillars with attached Corinthian half-columns. The rear wall of the stoas was panelled, at least on the ground floor, with marble slabs, between which pilasters with Attic bases and Corinthian anta capitals were formed. The roof tiles were of Laconian and Corinthian type and were made of marble and clay. The lavish decoration of the stoas was complemented by bronze statues, fragments of which were unearthed during the excavations. The architecture of the stoas –especially the ornamentation of the capitals – is attributed to the Aphrodisias workshop, craftsmen from which had also worked on the Harbour Gymnasium of Ephesus.

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  • Fresco representing a Goddess sanctuary, taken from Villa Regina Boscoreale

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